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shield devices INC, 2021

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Waste Advantage Magazine - June 2020

Appendix A:

(1) Center for Disease Control - CDC Integrated Pest Management - When it comes to restaurants, cafeterias, and other places where food is served to the masses, pests can affect the health of millions of people. We know that rodents carry food-borne pathogens that can make people sick, says Vincent Radke, with the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH). A restaurant's dumpster is a gold mine for pests. 

https://blogs.cdc.gov/yourhealthyourenvironment/2014/07/21/the-multi-shaped- multi-length-multi-characteristic-kitchen-invader/

 

(2) CDC Vector Control - Disease Vectors and Pests - Integrated Pest Management (IPM) techniques are necessary to reduce the number of pests that threaten human health and property. This systems approach to the problem relies on more than one technique to reduce or eliminate pests. 

https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/publications/books/housing/cha04.htm

 

(3) OSHA- Areas of Concern and Sanitation Vermin Control- Vermin are pests or nuisance animals, such as insects, birds, and rodents that may create safety and health hazards for workers. Workers have the potential for exposure to vermin in transmission of disease directly, as well as through their urine or feces. Vermin-related diseases 

http://www.hhs.gov   https://www.osha.gov/dts/maritime/sltc/ships/housekeeping/areas_vermin.html

 

(4) Bacteria, Insects and Vermin Thrive from Garbage - Waste bins are an ideal breeding ground for bacteria, insects and vermin. Increasing the risk of you contracting with salmonella, typhoid fever, food poisoning, enteric fever, gastroenteritis, and other major illnesses. Air pollution, respiratory diseases and other adverse health effects are possible as contaminants are absorbed from lungs into other parts of the body. The toxic substances in air contaminated by waste include carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane. 

https://www.ecubelabs.com/overflowing-garbage-bins-5-impacts-on- health-and-environment-and-how-to-prevent/

 

(5) United States National Institute of Health's National Library of Medicine - Annals of Work Exposures and Health - Occupational Hygiene: Waste Collection Workers - Waste Workers: Exposure to Airborne Fungal and Bacterial Species in the Truck Cab and During Waste Collection- A large number of people work with garbage collection, and exposure to microorganisms is considered an occupational health problem. 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4915520/

 

(6) Emptying Organic Rubbish can Damage Health, say Doctors: Danger to skin and lungs from mold spores in bins - Families in Germany told to wear face masks. German scientists are warning of the health dangers posed by storing organic waste, saying exposure to it, particularly to the molds that develop as the material decays, can cause skin problems and even breathing difficulties. One of the most common health problems linked to decaying organic matter, say scientists, are aspergillomas - fungal balls that fix themselves inside the lung.

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2008/apr/10/organics.food

(7) LA - Rats and Trash Take Over Los Angeles Causing Public Health Emergency - Growing sanitation problems in LA are causing a health scare at city hall. The Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors

requested that public health officials improve their communicable disease and prevention plans. In the interest of protecting the health and safety of our residents, the county must examine the root causes of the spread of communicable diseases associated with trash and rodent infestations, and develop a comprehensive plan to minimizerisk of additional cases," Supervisor Kathryn Barger said. 

https://www1.cbn.com/cbnnews/us/2019/june/rats-and-trash-take-over-los-angeles-causing-public- health-emergency

(8) Exposure to Biological, Chemical Substances and Infectious Materials - According to interviews and follow-up studies workers in this sector have been found to experience more work-related symptoms and illnesses than other occupational groups. Bacteria and their fragments- Biowaste.

https://oshwiki.eu/wiki/Exposure_to_dangerous_substances_in_the_waste_management_sector

 

Appendix B:

(1) NBC4 Reported that Sky-High Piles of Rotting Trash were Found around Los Angeles, leading some to worry about a new typhus outbreak. The trash piles, and the rats attracted to them, can cause numerous health problems for the surrounding population. Dr. Jeffrey Klauser, a professor of medicine in the division of infectious diseases at the University of California-Los Angeles, told the media outlet that a growing rat population could spread diseases like salmonella and even the bubonic plague. 

https://www.dailywire.com/news/47501/trash-city-sky-high-trash-piles-found-los- angeles-ashe-schow

 

(2) An Assessment of Dust, Endotoxin, and Microorganism Exposure during Waste Collection and Sorting - This study was conducted to assess inhalation exposure to multiple biological agents containing bacteria, fungi, endotoxins, mold spores, glucans, microbial volatile organic compounds, and infectious materials. 

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3155/1047-3289.61.4.461

 

(3) Australian Govt - Rubbish and disease - Food scraps and other rubbish will have lots of germs and sometimes parasites on them. If people, flies, cockroaches, rats or mice touch the rubbish they can get disease causing germs on them. Vectors are disease-spreading animals, and include mosquitoes, flies, rats and mice which provide a vehicle for germs and parasites to spread. 

https://www1.health.gov.au/internet/publications/publishing.nsf/Content/ohp-enhealth-manual-atsi- cnt-l~ohp-enhealth-manual-atsi-cnt-l-ch4~ohp-enhealth-manual-atsi-cnt-l-ch4.2

 

(4) Center for Disease Control - Worldwide, rats and mice spread over 35 diseases. These diseases can be spread to humans directly, through handling of rodents, through contact with rodent feces, urine, or saliva, or through rodent bites. Diseases carried by rodents can also be spread to humans indirectly, through ticks, mites or fleas that have fed on an infected rodent. Diseases indirectly transmitted by rodents - 

https://www.cdc.gov/rodents/index.html

 

(5) Rodents & Hantaviruses - Rodents shed the virus in their urine, droppings, and saliva. The virus is mainly transmitted to people when they breathe in air contaminated with the virus. When fresh rodent urine, droppings, or nesting materials are stirred up, tiny droplets containing the virus get intothe air, known as airborne transmission. Anyone who comes into contact with rodents that carry hantavirus is at risk of HPS. 

https://www.cdc.gov/hantavirus/hps/transmission.html andhttps://www.cdc.gov/rodents/prevent_infestations/clean_up.html

 

(6) Mosquitoes in the United States & the Zika Virus - the mosquitoes that carry the virus may be a major concern. Zika is currently affecting more than 30 countries and territories in the Americas. Zika virus is primarily spread through the bite of an infected Aedes aegypti mosquito. Once a week, empty and scrub, turn over, cover, or throw out containers that hold water... such as trash cans. 

https://blogs.cdc.gov/publichealthmatters/2016/03/zikaandwater/

 

 

 

Appendix C:

(1) Integrated Mosquito Management - Local governments and mosquito control programs often use an integrated mosquito management (IMM) or integrated vector management (IVM) approach to control mosquitoes. IMM uses a combination of methods to prevent and control mosquitoes that spread viruses, like West Nile. Removing places where mosquitoes lay eggs is an important step.

https://www.cdc.gov/westnile/vectorcontrol/integrated_mosquito_management.html

 

(2) CDC - Adult mosquitoes can spread viruses - like dengue that make you sick. Control larvae and pupae- Once mosquito eggs hatch, they become larvae and pupae which both live in standing water. Dumping or removing standing water is one way to control larvae. For standing water that cannot be dumped or drained, a larvicide can be used to kill larvae before they become biting adults. 

https://www.cdc.gov/dengue/mosquito-control/integrated_mosquito_management.html

 

(3) Cockroaches - According to the National Pest Management Association - Roaches often carry diseases that they can transmit to humans. Roaches pose a very real threat to health. Among the diseases they carry are: Dysentery, Cholera, Leprosy, Plague, Typhoid fever, Gastroenteritis, Giardia, Salmonella. 

https://www.moxieservices.com/blog/4-ways-cockroaches-are-more-dangerous-than- you-thought/

 

(4) World Health Organization - Cockroaches are among the most common pests in many homes and other buildings. At night they search for food in kitchens, food storage places, rubbish bins, drains and sewers. They are pests because of their filthy habits and bad smell. Some people may become allergic to cockroaches after frequent exposure. Cock-roaches can sometimes play a role as carriers of intestinal diseases.

https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/resources/vector288to301.pdf

 

(5) Dept of Entomology on Flies - A new study from Penn State's Eberly College of Science found that houseflies -- depending on their location -- are carriers for much more harmful bacteria than scientists previously thought.Houseflies are capable of transmitting at least 65 diseases to humans, including typhoid fever, dysentery, cholera, poliomyelitis, yaws, anthrax, tularemia, leprosy and tuberculosis, according to Penn State's Department of Entomology. 

https://www.cnet.com/news/urban-flies- diseases-bacteria-infested-houseflies-blowflies/

 

(6) World Health Organization - Garbage and waste from food processing - Garbage provides the main medium for breeding. Houseflies Carriers of diarrhoeal diseases and skin and eye infections The common housefly, Musca domestica, lives in close association with people allover the world. Insects feed on food waste where they can pick up and transport various disease agents. A number of other fly species have adapted to life in human settlements, where they present similar problems.

https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/resources/vector302to323.pdf

 

(7) Raccoons; A Public Health Announcement - from the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management Infectious Diseases of Raccoon - Raccoon are known to carry infectious diseases that can be transmitted to humans and animals that have contact with raccoon or their waste. Raccoon can shed viruses, bacteria and parasites that when exposed to humans and animals can result in infections and disease. Contamination of the environment and any materials used by the raccoon can also be a source of exposure. 

http://www.dem.ri.gov/programs/bnatres/agricult/pdf/raccoons.pdf

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